What are some basic concepts related to batteries?

What are some basic concepts related to batteries?

Some of the commonly used terms in the battery industry are as follows, and they are also necessary to understand the electrochemical behavior of Li-ion batteries.
①Primary battery A battery that can only be discharged once and cannot be recharged for reuse.

② Secondary battery (secondary battery) A battery that can be repeatedly charged and discharged and used many times, also called a battery or a rechargeable battery.

③The secondary battery (secondary/ rechargeable battery) is the same as the secondary battery.

④ rechargeable battery (rechargeable battery) secondary battery.

⑤ When the positive electrode is discharged, electrons flow from the external circuit to the electrode with a higher potential. In addition to being called the positive electrode at this time, it can also be called the cathode (cathode) due to the reduction reaction; and when charging, it cannot be called the cathode, because the oxidation reaction occurs at this time, but should be called the anode (anode) .

⑥ Insertion (intercalate/insert) The process of lithium entering into the positive electrode material.

⑦ Deintercalation (deintercalate/remove) The process of lithium coming out of the positive electrode material.

⑧ Negative electrode When discharging, electrons flow out from the external circuit, and the electrode has a lower potential. In addition to being called the negative electrode at this time, it can also be called the anode (anode) due to the oxidation reaction; and when charging, it cannot be called the anode, because the oxidation reaction occurs at this time, but should be called the cathode (cathode) .

⑨ The process of intercalate/insert/store lithium into the negative electrode material.

⑩ Deintercalate (deintercalate/remove) the process of lithium coming out of the negative electrode material.

⑪Nominal voltage (nominalvoltage) The average voltage of the whole process when the battery is discharged at 0.2C.

⑫Nominal capacity (nominal capacity) The discharge capacity of the battery when it is discharged at 0.2C.

⑬ Open circuit voltage (opencircuitvoltage) The voltage at both ends of the positive and negative poles when the battery is not loaded.

⑭Closed circuit voltage (closed circuit voltage) When the battery is under load, the voltage at both ends of the positive and negative electrodes is also called the working voltage.

⑮ Working voltage is the same as closed circuit voltage.

⑯ Discharge is the process in which current flows from a battery through an external circuit, at which point chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

⑰ Discharge characteristics (discharge characteristics) The characteristics of the battery when it is discharged, such as discharge curve, discharge capacity, discharge rate, discharge depth, discharge time, etc.

⑱ discharge curve (dischargecurve) when the battery discharges its voltage curve with time.

⑲Discharge capacity (discharge capacity) The amount of charge released when the battery is discharged is generally expressed by the product of time and current, such as A·h, mA·h (1A·h=3600C).

⑳ Discharge rate (discharge rate) A measure of the speed of discharge. The capacity used is called 1C discharge after 1h discharge is completed; after 5h discharge is completed, it is called C/5 discharge.

㉑ depth of discharge (depth of discharge) is a measure of the degree of discharge, which is the percentage of discharge capacity and total discharge capacity, referred to as DOD.

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